There are several factors responsible for the appearance of dark circles. It can range from an unhealthy lifestyle to hormonal changes and genetics. Here are some of the primary known reasons for dark circles

Less water intake


Dehydrated skin can only make the dark circles prominent. Drink at least 8-10 glasses of water daily and keep your body hydrated always.

Iron deficiency


There might be a good chance your dark circles are the result of iron deficiency. Lack of iron can cause the veins around your eye area to become more noticeable, thereby causing pigmentation. Consult your doctor, get your iron levels checked, and start consuming iron-rich foods.

Genetic causes


If your problem seems to be immune to all the remedies, your genetics can be the reason. In that case, it’s advisable to seek medical help. While you might not be able to get rid of them completely, proper medication together with healthy lifestyle changes can help reduce them.

Lack of sleep


If you like staying up until the wee hours of the night, you might be inviting dark circles along with other health issues like insomnia. Your body needs rest and it’s best not to disturb the biological clock. Get eight hours of sleep daily to let your body and skin repair and relax. It's honestly the easiest way to get rid of dark circles naturally.

 

Stress 


Stress is a modern-day disease and is often linked to a lot of health issues. We may not realize it immediately but stress takes its toll on the skin in many forms such as breakouts and dullness. Keep yourself stress-free by doing things that make you happy along with exercising, eating healthy, and seeing your therapist if required.

 

Improper diet 


Eating unhealthy food can make it difficult to get rid of dark circles. Indulge in clean eating, avoid junk and fried foods as much as you can. Include fresh salads, fruits and veggies, and lean meat in your diet. Inadequate nourishment can make your skin look sallow resulting in dark circles.

Medications


Medications that cause the blood vessels to dilate can lead to skin pigmentation, especially around the eyes which are quite a sensitive area. As the skin under the eyes is very delicate and thin, any change in blood flow shows easily through the skin. If you have dark circles, medications can cause them to darken.

Prolonged illness 


If you have been sick for a long time, chances are your eye bags can appear due to internal weakness. Consult your doctor and eat a healthy, balanced diet that will help regain your strength and vigor.

Long hours on electronic devices


Spending too much time peering into the computer and/or mobile phones can be harrowing for the eyes. This can cause pain and stress to the eyes leading to dark circles. Give your eyes rest after a long day by putting in a few drops of rose water or eye drops and getting your much-needed beauty sleep.

Allergies and certain skin conditions


Allergies can interfere with blood circulation and cause swelling and inflammation that can contribute to dark circles. Apart from that, skin conditions like eczema can cause inflammation and darkening of the skin around the eyes. Excessive rubbing due to itching and irritation can also cause damage to the delicate skin around the eye area, causing the skin to darken.

1. Reduce or eliminate consumption of alcohol and cigarettes.

2. Create optimal conditions for quality sleep and make sure to get 7-8 hours per night.

3. Treat medical conditions that can contribute to dark under-eye circles.


4. Consume a healthy diet including antioxidant-rich, plant-based foods.


5. Take quality supplements if your body is low on certain nutrients like iron, or to provide compounds that are beneficial for circulation such as grape seed proanthocyanidins.

6. Give your eye area a massage.  Lubricate skin with light oil or facial cleanser and gently stroke the periorbital area from the nose outward to the cheek to stimulate circulation and move congested body fluids out of the tissues.

7. Reduce dark circles under the eyes using skincare containing good quality antioxidants from plants.  Studies indicate that herbal extracts with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions can improve the appearance of dark circles. (source)

8. Reduce pigmentation of darkened skin by using skincare containing natural skin-lightening ingredients like licorice and Vitamin C to gently lighten color and stimulate collagen production.  Stabilized Vitamin C such as time-release Vitamin C complexes or a Vitamin C serum with Ascorbyl Palmitate, an ester form of the vitamin, will be the least irritating for the eye area because they are not acidic like the pure form, Ascorbic Acid.


9. Use caffeine cream in the eye area to reduce dark eye circles.  Caffeine is an antioxidant and can also help reduce fluid retention in puffy eyes by temporarily constricting blood vessels.

10. Soak eyes with a compressor use a DIY facial mask to deeply hydrate and nourish the skin in the eye area.  See our list of home remedies for dark circles under the eyes.

11. If all else fails use natural makeup for sensitive skin to camouflage darkness under the eyes.  Many mineral-based makeup products are available that contain soothing botanical oils and extracts to condition the skin.  Products that bounce light or have a little bit of luminizing shimmer can help to add brightness to skin.

Because the skin under the eyes is so very sensitive, especially as you get older, it’s easy to cause temporary or even longer-term damage. There are three major ways you can exacerbate your issues:

Don't Rub Your Eyes -

If you have allergies, the simple motion of trying to clear your eyes is likely to grind whatever the allergen is deeper into the skin, making it all worse. For example, you could be driving more pollen into your eyes and tear ducts, increasing the itch instead of relieving it. Mudgil suggests a gentle cleanser instead — like micellar water, for example — and applying an eye area–friendly moisturizer.

Avoid Smoking or Being Around Smoke -

Of course, smoking comes with a range of potential health issues, but it’s also a killer on your eyes. The American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) reports that smokers have a higher risk of dry eye, which will make them more likely to rub and scratch. According to the AAO, smoking also contributes to faster collagen loss, making the skin under your eyes even thinner, and those blood vessels more pronounced.

Limit Salt and Salty Foods -

When you have a high intake of sodium, particularly if you don’t balance that out with extra hydration, you may retain fluid throughout your body — that can include your under-eye area, according to the Mayo Clinic. If this happens to you on the regular, consider lowering your salt intake, and avoid drinking fluids before bed so you reduce fluid retention overnight, recommends the AAO.

Products and procedures can be helpful when it comes to minimizing the appearance of dark circles and under-eye puffiness, but perhaps your most potent tools are healthy lifestyle habits: Avoid allergens, wear sunscreen, get enough sleep, watch your salt intake, and ditch the smokes.

“The best treatment for your eyes, much like for the rest of your body and your brain, sleeps,” says Mudgil. “And, if genetics are part of the equation, making peace with your family trait to some degree may need to factor in as well.